Is there any art about people of color in the Viking era? It's just that I've always seen viking stuff pertaining to white ppl, but I'm sure other ethnic groups were in the area as well. Sorry if you already posted that though. I must have missed that post!
I get asked this a lot, and I always have to say that first of all, Viking art doesn’t have many people in it, period. It’s pretty stylized, and a lot of it is metalwork.
Secondly, the reason so many people are into the idea of Vikings is because they are seen as medieval adventurers…they established cities and trading enclaves along The Silk Road, and there are also Viking settlements in North America. From National Geographic:
As early as the ninth century Viking merchants nudged eastward along the shores of the White and Black Seas and navigated the shoals of eastern European rivers. They founded cities on major Eurasian trade routes and bartered for the finest wares from the Old World—glassware from the Rhine Valley, silver from the Middle East, shells from the Red Sea, silk from China.
And they keep finding more stuff from North America that belonged to the people we would call “vikings” today. :) A lot of it is tools, textiles, and some small bits of metalwork. The people living in the area at the time, however, called the Dorset by Archaeologists, did make artworks of people, and some of them are thought to be small portraits of Viking people:
As opposed to the hostile reception in Newfoundland, where the people had no apparent desire for the Viking’s trade goods, the Dorset had been making a fine living trading with various other people in the region for quite awhile:
Moreover, some researchers think the Dorset relished trade. For hundreds of years they had bartered avidly with their aboriginal neighbors for copper and other rare goods. “They may have been the real entrepreneurs of the Arctic,” says Sutherland.
And since it appears that the Viking towns weren’t occupying any kind of coveted area, and both parties had something the other wanted, these settlements were more or less welcomed. And, for those who have some pretty weird ideas about Vikings, a fair amount of them were women. There’s no evidence that there was any kind of sexual conquest or kidnapping of anyone indigenous; there’s actually evidence that this would have been against the law for both peoples (see this medieval manuscript that documents reparations made by Vikings [Varingians] to a woman who killed her would-be Viking rapist).
That’s not to say that there weren’t conflicts. Any time you have any group of people living together there will be conflicts of some kind, and sometimes these can turn violent. A pretty ubiquitous law in North America, especially in the Northeast, was that reparation for a person killed in war or by murder, or any other reason, was the replacement of that person. In other words, adoption (prisoners of war were sometimes tortured or killed instead; modern historians seem just as obsessed with this as the initial Europeans in the 17th century who wrote about it with great relish and unseemly titillation).
There is also a great deal of evidence that intermarriage on cordial terms was practiced regularly in most cultures in North America, Greenland, Iceland, and Scandinavia (from whence came the Vikings), up until around the 1300s-1400s, when there was something called The Little Ice Age.
You can read an article talking about these facts here, but unfortunately the writer seems to come to some kind of conclusion that the Vikings left to “preserve their cultural integrity/identity” which just about makes my eyes roll out of my head, and reminds me of this post. I’m serious., they are REALLY pushing it:
Although the descendants of the Vikings had adjusted to life in the north, there were limits to their assimilation. “They would have had to live more and more like the Inuit, distancing themselves from their cultural roots,” says [National Museum of Denmark archaeologist Jette] Arneborg. “This growing contradiction between identity and reality was apparently what led to their decline.”
The above is 100% speculation and only works if you think the Vikings living there at that time looked down on Inuit people as much as the person who wrote that dreck apparently does.
The reason I’m posting it is because my interpretation takes a slightly different angle-when the Vikings departed (slowly, over time as the weather got less hospitable for their livestock), it follows reason that a fair amount of people went with them, who were now presumably their family members.
If this seems somehow farfetched to you, consider also that there are several surviving written accounts from Europeans who colonized North America a few centuries later that clearly described many Northeastern Native Americas as of variably mixed complexion and features, as they would have described them:
A stranger in the Mandan village is first struck with the different shades of complexion, and various colors of hair, which he sees in a crowd about him and is at once disposed to exclaim that “these are not Indians.” There are a great many of these people whose complexions appear light. Among the women, particularly, there are many whose skins are almost white; with hazel, gray, and blue eyes.
Why this diversity of complexion I cannot tell, nor can they themselves account for it. Their traditions, so far as I have yet learned them, afford us no information of their having had any knowledge of white men before the visit of Lewis and Clark made to their village …
As you can see from Catlin’s description of the “Mandan” above, he probably asked some of these people WHY they looked how they looked, and they most likely replied with “what the crap are you talking about, you freak.”
I will reiterate: Vikings traveled and established outposts like these all over the place. Here’s a rough map of how widespread the material evidence of Viking presence is:
That arrow marked “Vinland” is kind of all the stuff I just talked about. There were Vikings working as mercenaries for the Byzantine Empire, Vikings trading for Chinese silks (probably purchased from Persia), Egyptian beads, getting involved in the whole Al-Andalus issue in the 800s, you name it.
And if you’re wondering why at this point people are still writing as if the vikings had some kind of sense of protecting a racial heritage, I will once more direct you to a post submitted by xanthy-m from The Swedish Historical Museum:
^ I’m pretty sure some of these academics are projecting their OWN views of ideas like “vikings” onto the people they’re writing about. I think that once we dig out this thread of bias that runs through the scholarship on these people, we actually stand a chance of getting a lot closer to the truth than we are right now.
As I have said, i fail to see any evidence that Viking people would have looked down on Inuit people or any other people of color, or been averse to intermarriage and/or cultural as well as commercial exchange. But the people writing on these topics are living now, and are affected by the bias created by how these images, ideas, and perceptions are used by people in the modern era.
1/2. answer to your post got too long. I think maybe Martin, as an author, is just portraying the world as it is. in the world we live in, those things are true. It is violent and terrible and men, particularly white men do have the power. For me personally, i see it as a mirror. i feel like he's exposing how awful we can be. plus it makes for conflict and you cant have a good tv or fiction without tons of that. also, in real world,
historically things like rape were either not discussed, considered NBD, or something which meant you must commit suicide because why would anyone want you after that? when i watch/read game of thrones, it makes me think about the brutality in our own lives, and how our media handles that. i dont know if it has that effect on anyone else though.
1. You’re wrong about social perspectives on violence, including sexual violence, from “history”. Firstly, because you seem to be generalizing the entirety of human history. Secondly,
According to the text of the Madrid manuscript of the “Synopsis historion,” a Byzantine chronicle written by John Skylitzes, “There were some Varangians dispersed in the Thrakesion theme for the winter. One of them coming across a woman of the region in the wilderness put the quality of her virtue to the test. When persuasion failed he resorted to violence, but she seized his Persian-type sword, struck him in the heart and promptly killed him. When the deed became known in the surrounding area, the Varangians held an assembly and crowned the woman, presenting her with all the possessions of her violator, whom they threw aside, unburied, according to the law concerning assassins.” In the image depicting these occurrences, the woman uses a spear to kill her attacker, and the other Varangian men approach her with armfuls of clothing.
Women’s History in regard to the European Middle Ages, specifically, is so constantly being revised, revisited, and rewritten, what is considered “the norm” and what is considered “exceptional” changes with the day of the week, the phase of the moon, and the latest piece of documentation being debated in various circles.
You can read this excerpt reviewing Gendering the Master Narrative: Women and Power in the Middle Ages in its second incarnation, versus the one from 1988 which the authors claimed focused too much on
"the positive"…. as you can see, these ideas are constantly in flux, as well they should be! I’m ready for another volume refocusing on the positive, myself…. :|
In other words, THIS is precisely what I mean-people get these ideas from media and project them onto history a lot of the time. And yes, there are plenty of counter-examples, we can talk about Artemisia Gentilischi, and a million other things, but my point is that you cannot universalize this.
2. That’s precisely the problem I’m talking about, that GoT is more of a reflection of our CURRENT SOCIETY than it is Medieval European Society, but it’s often being presented as or defended as “Just How Things Were Back Then”. You know, back when DRAGONS.
3. I think I’m going to have to have a whole speech very soon on how conflict in fiction is 100% possible without replicating or exaggerating gender or race-related oppression (Laurie J. Marks’ Elemental Logic series), AND without erasing gender (Ursula K. LeGuin’s The Left Hand of Darkness) OR people of color (like basically 90% of the genre of epic fantasy. And urban fantasy, for that matter.)
FYI, the Varangians were Vikings. This woman killed a fucking Viking and the others honoured her for it.
Let me rephrase that: a native Byzantian woman defended herself and killed a Varangian (a certain group of ‘vikings’, to be brief) who had come to these lands for trade and as hired guards (its more complex but bear with me). When the other Varangians heard of one of their own having attempted to assault a woman they proceeded to dump his corpse and give her all her belongings. Rather than, ya know, gang up on her like they constantly do in GoT (./vomit).
It is an extremely interesting manuscript excerpt to look at the interaction of different cultural groups, the way they value eachother within and across said groups, and the expectations on either side. The Varangians responded in the way they would when one of their own had attacked another, and the other had rightfully defended themselves. The fact that the ‘other’ was in this case a woman and of a culturally different group was completely irrelevant to them: someone was assaulted, therefore, it was obvious to them what aught be done - namely compensate her with the deceased’s belongings / holdings.
Thanks for adding more context to the story.
I really just want to add one more time that fantasy stories that you read or watch on TV are stories invented by writers. They are not fettered by “historical facts” to have misogyny (or racism, or anything else) hardwired into every storyline supposedly based on history. Their stories are the result of choices that they are responsible for.
i can't seem to find many things on poc during the viking age. i also can't find much music from then, period. do you have any sources or information about this time period?
Well, here are all the posts I have tagged Vikings. A lot of people ask about people of color in Viking art, and I always have to kind of explain that there isn’t a lot of Viking art that has images of people in it. As well as overall trends in European Medieval Art. Most of your information is going to come from the well-traveled artworks that support what most of us know: the the Vikings were a very well-traveled people. There are also trade goods like beads and cloth, like Persian and Chinese silk found in grave sites.
As for music, the Wikipedia page you probably want there is Nordic Folk Music. There isn’t a lot of documentation or surviving instruments involving Viking music, but that doesn’t mean they didn’t have any. Chapter 4 of A History of European Folk Music by Jan Ling covers how many of the songs and tales from Scandinavia were part of an overall oral tradition.
Hey, I know this is outside of your scope so I'm just hoping you can point me in the right direction- I'm looking for images of physically disabled people, literally anywhere, prior to the 19th century. Because I'm kinda sick of being told that I didn't exist, and I can't seem to find anything myself.
I’m a disability activist and it’s part of my day job, too so I actually have a fair bit, I think.
For some pretty interesting but mostly text-based scholarship on disabled people in history, Disability Studies Quarterly offers full text online (EE!), and I *think* they have PDFs that include images and/or artworks.
This issue in particular has some great articles on Disabled Shakespearean characters and themes.
Here is a post about a deaf man who greatly confused some Americans in the late 1800s. Here is a painting of the Virgin and Child appearing to a “lame” noblewoman from the 1750s. I have some paintings of Billy Waters and some disabled Black sailors in the British Navy from the 1800s here:
Here is a PDF excerpt from Stumbling Blocks Before the Blind: Medieval Constructions of Disability that includes at least one image from an illuminated manuscript.
Greg Carrier, a graduate student in Medieval Studies at the intersection of disability wrote a series of guest posts for the Medieval Middle, has a blog here that you can look through to find images and writing about the depiction of disabled people in Medieval Art as well as evidence from writing and I *think* surviving objects as well. For example:
Here’s a pretty cool resource on a disability/representation exhibit that has a lot of images, including The Beggars by Pieter Brueghel:
There’s a LOT out there, and anyone who tells you otherwise is full of it.
Just in case it’s interesting you can find sources for people with disabilities in Norse society too.
Norse mythology: The most well known is probably the mythical god Hod, who was blind. He was tricked by Loki into killing his brother Baldur with a mistletoe arrow.
Odin himself had one eye, since he traded the other one away.
There’s also the warrior god, Tyr, whose hand was bit off when he leashed Fenris. Having one hand did not stop him from commanding the armies of Asgard.
Sagas: Most people probably know about Ragnar Lodbrok from History Channel’s Vikings. According to several different sources he and Aslaug had a son, Ivar the Boneless, who was disabled. He had “soft legs” (most likely osteoporosis) and had to be carried into battle on a shield. The sagas describe him as beautiful, wise and strong with sword and bow. He ended up as king of York. (His brother Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye was born with an eye with a distorted pupil).
In Hávamál there’s this quote:
The lame may ride a horse,
The handless may drive a herd,
The deaf may fight and do well;
A blind man is better
Than a burnt one;
The dead are of no use.
Archeological finds: Two of the most famous Norse graves found in Norway, Oseberg and Gokstad, has people that archeologists believe had disabilities. The oldest woman from Oseberg had been bedridden when she was younger due to osteoporosis and walked with a limp. The man from Gokstad, a warrior killed in battle, had acromegaly and in addition a permanent knee injury.
(Interestingly, one DNA study of the younger woman from the Oseberg grave showed that she was most likely of Eastern descent. They have unfortunately not been able to replicate this study and confirm the findings.)
Laws: There was a practice of leaving unwanted children to die in the wild. With the introduction of Christianity there came laws forbidding this unless the infants had obvious physical disabilites.